isproper

Determine if dynamic system model is proper

Syntax

B = isproper(sys)
B = isproper(sys,'elem')
[B,sysr] = isproper(sys)

Description

B = isproper(sys) returns a logical value of 1 (true) if the dynamic system model sys is proper and a logical value of 0 (false) otherwise.

A proper model has relative degree ≤ 0 and is causal. SISO transfer functions and zero-pole-gain models are proper if the degree of their numerator is less than or equal to the degree of their denominator (in other words, if they have at least as many poles as zeroes). MIMO transfer functions are proper if all their SISO entries are proper. Regular state-space models (state-space models having no E matrix) are always proper. A descriptor state-space model that has an invertible E matrix is always proper. A descriptor state-space model having a singular (non-invertible) E matrix is proper if the model has at least as many poles as zeroes.

If sys is a model array, then B is 1 if all models in the array are proper.

B = isproper(sys,'elem') checks each model in a model array sys and returns a logical array of the same size as sys. The logical array indicates which models in sys are proper.

[B,sysr] = isproper(sys) also returns an equivalent model sysr with fewer states (reduced order) and a non-singular E matrix, if sys is a proper descriptor state-space model with a non-invertible E matrix. If sys is not proper, sysr = sys.

Examples

collapse all

Create a SISO continuous-time transfer function, ${H}_{1}=s$

H1 = tf([1 0],1);

Check whether H1 is proper.

B1 = isproper(H1)
B1 = logical
0

SISO transfer functions are proper if the degree of their numerator is less than or equal to the degree of their denominator That is, if the transfer function has at least as many poles as zeroes. Since H1 has one zero and no poles, the isproper command returns 0.

Now create a transfer function with one pole and one zero, ${H}_{2}=s/\left(s+1\right)$

H2 = tf([1 0],[1 1]);

Check whether H2 is proper.

B2 = isproper(H2)
B2 = logical
1

Since H2 has equal number of poles and zeros, isproper returns 1.

Combining state-space models sometimes yields results that include more states than necessary. Use isproper to compute an equivalent lower-order model.

H1 = ss(tf([1 1],[1 2 5]));
H2 = ss(tf([1 7],));
H = H1*H2;
size(H)
State-space model with 1 outputs, 1 inputs, and 4 states.

H is proper and reducible. isproper returns the reduced model.

[isprop,Hr] = isproper(H);
size(Hr)
State-space model with 1 outputs, 1 inputs, and 2 states.

H and Hr are equivalent, as a Bode plot demonstrates.

bodeplot(H,Hr,'r--')
legend('original','reduced') Varga, Andràs. "Computation of irreducible generalized state-space realizations." Kybernetika 26.2 (1990): 89-106.