# N-Channel IGBT

N-Channel insulated gate bipolar transistor

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## Description

The N-Channel IGBT block models an Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT). The block provides two main modeling options, by setting the Modeling option parameter to either:

• Full I-V and capacitance characteristics — This modeling option is a detailed component model suitable for simulating detailed switching characteristics and predicting component losses. This modeling option, in turn, provides two ways of modeling an IGBT:

The gate junction capacitance in the detailed model is represented as a fixed gate-emitter capacitance CGE and either a fixed or a nonlinear gate-collector capacitance CGC. For details, see Charge Model.

• Simplified I-V characteristics and event-based timing — This modeling option models the IGBT more simply by using just the on-state I-V data as a function of the collector-emitter voltage. In the off state (gate-emitter voltage less than Threshold voltage, Vth), the IGBT is modeled by a constant Off-state conductance. This simplified model is suitable when approximate dynamic characteristics are sufficient, and simulation speed is of paramount importance. For details, see Event-Based IGBT Modeling Option.

Together with the thermal port modeling options (see Thermal Port), the block therefore provides you with four choices. To select the desired modeling option, set the Modeling option parameter to either:

• Full I-V and capacitance characteristics | No thermal port — Detailed model that does not simulate the effects of generated heat and device temperature. This is the default.

• Full I-V and capacitance characteristics | Show thermal port — Detailed model with exposed thermal port.

• Simplified I-V characteristics and event-based timing | No thermal port — Simplified event-based model, which also does not simulate the effects of generated heat and device temperature.

• Simplified I-V characteristics and event-based timing | Show thermal port — Simplified event-based model with exposed thermal port.

### Representation by Equivalent Circuit

The equivalent circuit of the detailed block modeling option consists of a PNP Bipolar Transistor block driven by an N-Channel MOSFET block, as shown in the following figure:

The MOSFET source is connected to the bipolar transistor collector, and the MOSFET drain is connected to the bipolar transistor base. The MOSFET uses the threshold-based equations shown in the N-Channel MOSFET block reference page. The bipolar transistor uses the equations shown in the PNP Bipolar Transistor block reference page, but with the addition of an emission coefficient parameter N that scales kT/q.

The N-Channel IGBT block uses the on and off characteristics you specify in the block dialog box to estimate the parameter values for the underlying N-Channel MOSFET and PNP bipolar transistor.

The block uses the off characteristics to calculate the base-emitter voltage, Vbe, and the saturation current, IS.

When the transistor is off, the gate-emitter voltage is zero and the IGBT base-collector voltage is large, so the PNP base and collector current equations simplify to:

$\begin{array}{l}{I}_{b}=0=-{I}_{s}\left[\frac{1}{{\beta }_{F}}\left({e}^{-q{V}_{be}/\left(NkT\right)}-1\right)-\frac{1}{{\beta }_{R}}\right]\\ {I}_{c}=-{I}_{s}\left[{e}^{-q{V}_{be}/\left(NkT\right)}\left(1+\frac{{V}_{bc}}{{V}_{AF}}\right)+\frac{1}{{\beta }_{R}}\right]\end{array}$

where N is the Emission coefficient, N parameter value, VAF is the forward Early voltage, and Ic and Ib are defined as positive flowing into the collector and base, respectively. See the PNP Bipolar Transistor reference page for definitions of the remaining variables. The first equation can be solved for Vbe.

The base current is zero in the off-condition, and hence Ic = –Ices, where Ices is the Zero gate voltage collector current. The base-collector voltage, Vbc, is given by Vbc = Vces + Vces, where Vces is the voltage at which Ices is measured. Hence we can rewrite the second equation as follows:

${I}_{ces}={I}_{s}\left[{e}^{-q{V}_{be}/\left(NkT\right)}\left(1+\frac{{V}_{ces}+{V}_{be}}{{V}_{AF}}\right)+\frac{1}{{\beta }_{R}}\right]$

The block sets βR and βF to typical values of 1 and 50, so these two equations can be used to solve for Vbe and IS:

$\begin{array}{l}{V}_{be}=\frac{-NkT}{q}\mathrm{log}\left(1+\frac{{\beta }_{F}}{{\beta }_{R}}\right)\\ {I}_{s}=\frac{{I}_{c}}{{e}^{-q{V}_{be}/\left(NkT\right)}+\frac{1}{{\beta }_{R}}}\end{array}$

Note

The block does not require an exact value for βF because it can adjust the MOSFET gain K to ensure the overall device gain is correct.

The block parameters Collector-emitter saturation voltage, Vce(sat) and Collector current at which Vce(sat) is defined are used to determine Vbe(sat) by solving the following equation:

${I}_{ce\left(sat\right)}={I}_{s}\left[{e}^{-q{V}_{be\left(sat\right)}/\left(NkT\right)}\left(1+\frac{{V}_{ce\left(sat\right)}+{V}_{be\left(sat\right)}}{{V}_{AF}}\right)+\frac{1}{{\beta }_{R}}\right]$

Given this value, the block calculates the MOSFET gain, K, using the following equation:

$\begin{array}{l}{I}_{tf}=TF\frac{d{I}_{c}}{dt}\\ {I}_{ds}={I}_{b}-{I}_{tf}=K\left[\left({V}_{GE\left(sat\right)}-{V}_{th}\right){V}_{ds}-\frac{{V}_{ds}{}^{2}}{2}\right]\end{array}$

where Vth is the Gate-emitter threshold voltage, Vge(th) parameter value, VGE(sat) is the Gate-emitter voltage at which Vce(sat) is defined parameter value, and TF is the Total forward transit time parameter value.

Vds is related to the transistor voltages as Vds = VceVbe. The block substitutes this relationship for Vds, sets the base-emitter voltage and base current to their saturated values, and rearranges the MOSFET equation to give

$K=\frac{{I}_{b\left(sat\right)}}{\left[\left({V}_{GE\left(sat\right)}-{V}_{th}\right)\left({V}_{be\left(sat\right)}+{V}_{ce\left(sat\right)}\right)-\frac{{\left({V}_{be\left(sat\right)}+{V}_{ce\left(sat\right)}\right)}^{2}}{2}\right]}$

where Vce(sat) is the Collector-emitter saturation voltage, Vce(sat) parameter value.

These calculations ensure the zero gate voltage collector current and collector-emitter saturation voltage are exactly met at these two specified conditions. However, the current-voltage plots are very sensitive to the emission coefficient N and the precise value of Vth. If the manufacturer datasheet gives current-voltage plots for different VGE values, then the N and Vth can be tuned by hand to improve the match.

### Representation by 2D Lookup Table

For the lookup table representation of the detailed block modeling option, you provide tabulated values for collector current as a function of gate-emitter voltage and collector-emitter voltage. The main advantage of using this option is simulation speed. It also lets you parameterize the device from either measured data or from data obtained from another simulation environment. To generate your own data from the equivalent circuit representation, you can use a test harness, such as shown in the IGBT Characteristics example.

The lookup table representation combines all of the equivalent circuit components (PNP transistor, N-channel MOSFET, collector resistor and emitter resistor) into one equivalent lookup table.

### Representation by 3D Lookup Table

For the temperature-dependent lookup table representation of the detailed block modeling option, you provide tabulated values for collector current as a function of gate-emitter voltage, collector-emitter voltage, and temperature.

The lookup table representation combines all of the equivalent circuit components (PNP transistor, N-channel MOSFET, collector resistor and emitter resistor) into one equivalent lookup table.

If the block thermal port is not exposed, then the Device simulation temperature parameter on the Temperature Dependence setting lets you specify the simulation temperature.

### Charge Model

The detailed modeling option of the block models junction capacitances either by fixed capacitance values, or by tabulated values as a function of the collector-emitter voltage. In either case, you can either directly specify the gate-emitter and gate-collector junction capacitance values, or let the block derive them from the input and reverse transfer capacitance values. Therefore, the Parameterization options for charge model on the Junction Capacitance setting are:

• Specify fixed input, reverse transfer and output capacitance — Provide fixed parameter values from datasheet and let the block convert the input and reverse transfer capacitance values to junction capacitance values, as described below. This is the default method.

• Specify fixed gate-emitter, gate-collector and collector-emitter capacitance — Provide fixed values for junction capacitance parameters directly.

• Specify tabulated input, reverse transfer and output capacitance — Provide tabulated capacitance and collector-emitter voltage values based on datasheet plots. The block converts the input and reverse transfer capacitance values to junction capacitance values, as described below.

• Specify tabulated gate-emitter, gate-collector and collector-emitter capacitance — Provide tabulated values for junction capacitances and collector-emitter voltage.

Use one of the tabulated capacitance options (Specify tabulated input, reverse transfer and output capacitance or Specify tabulated gate-emitter, gate-collector and collector-emitter capacitance) when the datasheet provides a plot of junction capacitances as a function of collector-emitter voltage. Using tabulated capacitance values will give more accurate dynamic characteristics, and avoids the need to iteratively tune parameters to fit the dynamics.

If you use the Specify fixed gate-emitter, gate-collector and collector-emitter capacitance or Specify tabulated gate-emitter, gate-collector and collector-emitter capacitance option, the Junction Capacitance setting lets you specify the Gate-emitter junction capacitance, Gate-collector junction capacitance, and Collector-emitter junction capacitance parameter values (fixed or tabulated) directly. Otherwise, the block derives them from the Input capacitance, Cies, Reverse transfer capacitance, Cres, and Output capacitance, Coes parameter values. These two parameterization methods are related as follows:

• CGC = Cres

• CGE = CiesCres

• CCE = CoesCres

The two fixed capacitance options (Specify fixed input, reverse transfer and output capacitance or Specify fixed gate-emitter, gate-collector and collector-emitter capacitance) let you model gate junction capacitance as a fixed gate-emitter capacitance CGE and either a fixed or a nonlinear gate-collector capacitance CGC. If you select the Gate-collector charge function is nonlinear option for the Charge-voltage linearity parameter, then the gate-collector charge relationship is defined by the piecewise-linear function shown in the following figure.

With this nonlinear capacitance, the gate-emitter and collector-emitter voltage profiles take the form shown in the next figure, where the collector-emitter voltage fall has two regions (labeled 2 and 3) and the gate-emitter voltage has two time-constants (before and after the threshold voltage Vth):

You can determine the capacitor values for Cies, Cres, and Cox as follows, assuming that the IGBT gate is driven through an external resistance RG:

1. Set Cies to get correct time-constant for VGE in Region 1. The time constant is defined by the product of Cies and RG. Alternatively, you can use a datasheet value for Cies.

2. Set Cres so as to achieve the correct VCE gradient in Region 2. The gradient is given by (VGEVth)/(Cres · RG).

3. Set VCox to the voltage at which the VCE gradient changes minus the threshold voltage Vth.

4. Set Cox to get correct Miller length and time constant in Region 4.

Because the underlying model is a simplification of an actual charge distribution, some iteration of these four steps may be required to get a best overall fit to measured data.

The collector current tail when the IGBT is turned off is determined by the Total forward transit time parameter if you set the I-V characteristics defined by parameter to Fundamental nonlinear equation.

If you set the I-V characteristics defined by parameter to Lookup table (2D, temperature independent) or Lookup table (3D, temperature dependent), then the collector current tail when the IGBT is turned off is determined by the Turn-off tail current transit time parameter:

${i}_{c}={i}_{off}+\left({i}_{on}-{i}_{off}\right)\mathrm{exp}\left(-\frac{t-{t}_{off}}{TT}\right)$

Where ioff is the IGBT turn-off current, ion is the IGBT turn-on current, toff is the turn-off time, and TT is the value of the Turn-off tail current transit time parameter.

Note

Because this block implementation includes a charge model, you must model the impedance of the circuit driving the gate to obtain representative turn-on and turn-off dynamics. Therefore, if you are simplifying the gate drive circuit by representing it as a controlled voltage source, you must include a suitable series resistor between the voltage source and the gate.

### Fine-Tuning the Current-Voltage Characteristics

For the equivalent circuit representation of the detailed model, use the parameters on the Advanced setting to fine-tune the current-voltage characteristics of the modeled device. To use these additional parameters effectively, you will need a manufacturer datasheet that provides plots of the collector current versus collector-emitter voltage for different values of gate-emitter voltage. The parameters on the Advanced setting have the following effects:

• The Emission coefficient, N parameter controls the shape of the current-voltage curves around the origin.

• The Collector resistance, RC and Emitter resistance, RE parameters affect the slope of the current-voltage curve at higher currents, and when fully turned on by a high gate-emitter voltage.

• The Forward Early voltage, VAF parameter affects the shape of the current-voltage curves for gate-emitter voltages around the Gate-emitter threshold voltage, Vge(th).

### Modeling Temperature Dependence

For the 2D lookup table representation, the electrical equations do not depend on temperature. However, you can model temperature dependence by either using the 3D lookup table representation, or by using the equivalent circuit representation of the detailed model.

For the equivalent circuit representation, temperature dependence is modeled by the temperature dependence of the constituent components. See the N-Channel MOSFET and PNP Bipolar Transistor block reference pages for further information on the defining equations.

Some datasheets do not provide information on the zero gate voltage collector current, Ices, at a higher measurement temperature. In this case, you can alternatively specify the energy gap, EG, for the device, using a typical value for the semiconductor type. For silicon, the energy gap is usually 1.11 eV.

### Event-Based IGBT Modeling Option

This implementation has much simpler equations than that with full I-V and capacitance characteristics. Use the event-based modeling option when the focus of the analysis is to understand overall circuit behavior rather than to verify the precise IGBT timing or losses characteristics.

The device is always in one of the following four states:

• Off

• Turning on

• On

• Turning off

In the off state, the relationship between collector current (ic) and collector-emitter voltage (vce) is

 ic = Goffvce (1)

In the on state, the relationship between collector current (ic) and collector-emitter voltage (vce) is

 vce = tablelookup(ic) (2)

When turning on, the collector-emitter voltage is ramped down to zero over the rise time, the device moving into the on state when the voltage falls below the tabulated on-state value. Similarly when turning off, the collector-emitter voltage is ramped up over the (current) fall time to the specified blocking voltage value.

The following figure shows the resulting voltage and current profiles when driving a resistive load.

### Thermal Port

The block has an optional thermal port, hidden by default. To expose the thermal port, set the Modeling option parameter to:

• Full I-V and capacitance characteristics | Show thermal port — Detailed model. This action displays the thermal port H on the block icon, and exposes the Thermal Port parameters.

• Simplified I-V characteristics and event-based timing | Show thermal port — Simplified event-based model. This action displays the thermal port H on the block icon, exposes Thermal Port parameters and additional Main parameters. To simulate thermal effects, you must provide additional tabulated data for turn-on and turn-off losses and define the collector-emitter on-state voltage as a function of both current and temperature.

Use the thermal port to simulate the effects of generated heat and device temperature. For more information on using thermal ports and on the Thermal Port parameters, see Simulating Thermal Effects in Semiconductors.

## Assumptions and Limitations

The detailed model is based on the following assumptions:

• This block does not allow you to specify initial conditions on the junction capacitances. If you select the Start simulation from steady state option in the Solver Configuration block, the block solves the initial voltages to be consistent with the calculated steady state. Otherwise, voltages are zero at the start of the simulation.

• You may need to use nonzero junction capacitance values to prevent numerical simulation issues, but the simulation may run faster with these values set to zero.

• The block does not account for temperature-dependent effects on the junction capacitances.

The simplified, event-based model is based on the following assumptions:

• When you use a pair of IGBTs in a bridge arm, normally the gate drive circuitry will prevent a device turning on until the corresponding device has turned off, thereby implementing a minimum dead band. If you need to simulate the case where there is no minimum dead band and both devices are momentarily partially on, use the detailed IGBT model modeling option (Full I-V and capacitance characteristics). The assumption used by the event-based modeling option that the collector-emitter voltages can be ramped between on and off states is not valid for such cases.

• A minimum pulse width is applied when turning on or off; at the point where the gate-collector voltage rises above the threshold, any subsequent gate voltage changes are ignored for a time equal to the sum of the turn-on delay and current rise time. Similarly at the point where the gate collector voltage falls below the threshold, any subsequent gate voltage changes are ignored for a time equal to the sum of the turn-off delay and current fall time. This feature is normally implemented in the gate drive circuitry.

• This model does not account for charge. Hence there is no current tail when turning off an inductive load.

• Representative modeling of the current spike during turn-on of an inductive load with preexisting freewheeling current requires tuning of the Miller resistance parameter.

• The tabulated turn-on switching loss uses the previous on-state current, not the current value (which is not known until the device reaches the final on state).

• Due to high model stiffness that can arise from the simplified equations, you may get minimum step size violation warnings when using this block. Open the Solver pane of the Configuration Parameters dialog box and increase the Number of consecutive min steps parameter value as necessary to remove these warnings.

## Ports

### Conserving

expand all

Electrical conserving port associated with the PNP emitter terminal

Electrical conserving port associated with the IGBT gate terminal

Electrical conserving port associated with the PNP collector terminal

## Parameters

expand all

Select the IGBT representation:

• Full I-V and capacitance characteristics | No thermal port — Detailed model that does not simulate the effects of generated heat and device temperature. This is the default.

• Full I-V and capacitance characteristics | Show thermal port — Detailed model with exposed thermal port.

• Simplified I-V characteristics and event-based timing | No thermal port — Simplified event-based model, which also does not simulate the effects of generated heat and device temperature.

• Simplified I-V characteristics and event-based timing | Show thermal port — Simplified event-based model with exposed thermal port.

### Main (Full I-V and Capacitance Characteristics)

This configuration of the Main setting corresponds to the detailed block modeling option, which is the default. If you are using the simplified, event-based modeling option of the block, see Main (Simplified I-V Characteristics and Event-Based Timing).

Select the IGBT representation:

• Fundamental nonlinear equations — Use an equivalent circuit based on a PNP bipolar transistor and N-channel MOSFET. This is the default.

• Lookup table (2D, temperature independent) — Use 2D table lookup for collector current as a function of gate-emitter voltage and collector-emitter voltage.

• Lookup table (3D, temperature dependent) — Use 3D table lookup for collector current as a function of gate-emitter voltage, collector-emitter voltage, and temperature.

Collector current that flows when the gate-emitter voltage is set to zero, and a large collector-emitter voltage is applied, that is, the device is in the off-state. The value of the large collector-emitter voltage is defined by the parameter Voltage at which Ices is defined.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set I-V characteristics defined by to Fundamental nonlinear equations.

Voltage used when measuring the Zero gate voltage collector current, Ices.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set I-V characteristics defined by to Fundamental nonlinear equations.

Threshold voltage used in the MOSFET equations.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set I-V characteristics defined by to Fundamental nonlinear equations.

Collector-emitter voltage for a typical on-state as specified by the manufacturer.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set I-V characteristics defined by to Fundamental nonlinear equations.

Collector-emitter current when the gate-emitter voltage is Vge(sat) and collector-emitter voltage is Vce(sat).

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set I-V characteristics defined by to Fundamental nonlinear equations.

Gate voltage used when measuring Vce(sat) and Ice(sat).

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set I-V characteristics defined by to Fundamental nonlinear equations.

Temperature for which the parameters are quoted (Tm1).

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set I-V characteristics defined by to Fundamental nonlinear equations.

Vector of gate-emitter voltages, to be used for table lookup. The vector values must be strictly increasing. The values can be nonuniformly spaced.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set I-V characteristics defined by to either Lookup table (2D, temperature independent) or Lookup table (3D, temperature dependent).

Vector of collector-emitter voltages, to be used for table lookup. The vector values must be strictly increasing. The values can be nonuniformly spaced.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set I-V characteristics defined by to either Lookup table (2D, temperature independent) or Lookup table (3D, temperature dependent).

Tabulated values for collector current as a function of gate-emitter voltage and collector-emitter voltage, to be used for 2D table lookup. Each value in the matrix specifies the collector current for a specific combination of gate-emitter voltage and collector-emitter voltage. The matrix size must match the dimensions defined by the gate-emitter voltage and collector-emitter voltage vectors. The default values, in A, are:

[-1.015e-5 1.35e-8 4.7135e-4 5.092e-4 5.105e-4 5.1175e-4 5.1299e-4 5.1423e-4 5.1548e-4 5.1672e-4;
-9.9869e-6 1.35e-8 4.7135e-4 5.092e-4 5.105e-4 5.1175e-4 5.1299e-4 5.1423e-4 5.1548e-4 5.1672e-4;
-9.955e-6 1.35e-8 0.0065225 3.3324 48.154 93.661 105.52 105.72 105.93 106.14;
-9.955e-6 1.35e-8 0.0065235 3.5783 70.264 166.33 252.4 317.67 353.38 357.39;
-9.955e-6 1.35e-8 0.006524 3.7206 89.171 228.09 371.63 511.02 642.69 764.04;
-9.9549e-6 1.35e-8 0.0065242 3.7716 97.793 256.21 424.27 592.92 759.2 921.52;
-9.9549e-6 1.35e-8 0.0065243 3.8067 104.52 278.11 464.6 654.37 844.57 1.0339e+3;
-9.9549e-6 1.35e-8 0.0065244 3.8324 109.92 295.67 496.54 702.28 909.96 1.1183e+3]

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set I-V characteristics defined by to Lookup table (2D, temperature independent).

Vector of temperatures, to be used for table lookup. The vector values must be strictly increasing. The values can be nonuniformly spaced.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set I-V characteristics defined by to Lookup table (3D, temperature dependent).

Tabulated values for collector current as a function of gate-emitter voltage, collector-emitter voltage, and temperature, to be used for 3D table lookup. Each value in the matrix specifies the collector current for a specific combination of gate-emitter voltage and collector-emitter voltage at a specific temperature. The matrix size must match the dimensions defined by the gate-emitter voltage, collector-emitter voltage, and temperature vectors.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set I-V characteristics defined by to Lookup table (3D, temperature dependent).

### Junction Capacitance (Full I-V and Capacitance Characteristics)

Select one of the following methods for block parameterization:

• Specify fixed input, reverse transfer, and output capacitance — Provide fixed parameter values from datasheet and let the block convert the input, output, and reverse transfer capacitance values to junction capacitance values, as described in Charge Model. This is the default method.

• Specify fixed gate-emitter, gate-collector, and collector-emitter capacitance — Provide fixed values for junction capacitance parameters directly.

• Specify tabulated input, reverse transfer, and output capacitance — Provide tabulated capacitance and collector-emitter voltage values based on datasheet plots. The block converts the input, output, and reverse transfer capacitance values to junction capacitance values, as described in Charge Model.

• Specify tabulated gate-emitter, gate-collector, and collector-emitter capacitance — Provide tabulated values for junction capacitances and collector-emitter voltage.

Gate-emitter capacitance with the collector shorted to the emitter.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set Parameterization to Specify fixed input, reverse transfer, and output capacitance.

Gate-emitter capacitance with the collector shorted to the emitter, tabulated with the collector-emitter voltage.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set Parameterization to Specify tabulated input, reverse transfer, and output capacitance.

Collector-gate capacitance with the emitter connected to ground.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set Parameterization to Specify fixed input, reverse transfer, and output capacitance.

Collector-gate capacitance with the emitter connected to ground, tabuled with the collector-emitter voltage.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set Parameterization to Specify tabulated input, reverse transfer, and output capacitance.

Collector-emitter capacitance with the gate and emitter shorted.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set Parameterization to Specify fixed input, reverse transfer, and output capacitance.

Collector-emitter capacitance with the gate and emitter shorted, tabulated with collector-emitter voltage.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set Parameterization to Specify tabulated input, reverse transfer, and output capacitance.

Capacitance placed between the gate and the emitter.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set Parameterization to Specify fixed gate-emitter, gate-collector, and collector-emitter capacitance.

Capacitance placed between the gate and the emitter, tabulated with gate-emitter voltage and collector-emitter voltage.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set Parameterization to Specify tabulated gate-emitter, gate-collector, and collector-emitter capacitance.

Capacitance placed between the gate and the collector.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set Parameterization to Specify fixed gate-emitter, gate-collector, and collector-emitter capacitance.

Capacitance placed between the gate and the collector, tabulated with the gate-emitter voltage and the collector-emitter voltage.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set Parameterization to Specify tabulated gate-emitter, gate-collector, and collector-emitter capacitance.

Gate-emitter voltages corresponding to the tabulated gate capacitance values.

If this value is a scalar, then Gate-emitter junction capacitance, Cge(Vge,Vce) and Gate-collector junction capacitance, Cgc(Vge,Vce) are vectors of scalars. If this value is a vector, then Gate-emitter junction capacitance, Cge(Vge,Vce) and Gate-collector junction capacitance, Cgc(Vge,Vce) are matrices of scalars.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set Parameterization to Specify tabulated gate-emitter, gate-collector, and collector-emitter capacitance.

Capacitance placed between the collector and the emitter.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set Parameterization to Specify fixed gate-emitter, gate-collector, and collector-emitter capacitance.

Capacitance placed between the collector and the emitter, tabulated with the collector-emitter voltage.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set Parameterization to Specify tabulated gate-emitter, gate-collector, and collector-emitter capacitance.

Collector-emitter voltages corresponding to the tabulated capacitance values.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set Parameterization to Specify tabulated input, reverse transfer, and output capacitance or Specify tabulated gate-emitter, gate-collector, and collector-emitter capacitance.

Whether the gate-drain capacitance is fixed or nonlinear:

• Gate-collector capacitance is constant — The capacitance value is constant and defined according to the selected parameterization option, either directly or derived from a datasheet. This is the default method.

• Gate-collector charge function is nonlinear — The gate-collector charge relationship is defined according to the piecewise-nonlinear function described in Charge Model. Two additional parameters appear to let you define the gate-collector charge function.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set Parameterization to his Specify fixed input, reverse transfer and output capacitance or Specify fixed gate-emitter, gate-collector and output capacitance.

Gate-collector capacitance when the device is on and the collector-gate voltage is small.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set Charge-voltage linearity to Gate-collector charge function is nonlinear.

Collector-gate voltage at which the collector-gate capacitance switches between off-state (CGC) and on-state (Cox) capacitance values.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set Charge-voltage linearity to Gate-collector charge function is nonlinear.

Forward transit time for the PNP transistor used as part of the underlying IGBT model. It affects how quickly charge is removed from the channel when the IGBT is turned off.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, in the Main settings, set I-V characteristics defined by to Fundamental nonlinear equations.

Turn-off transit time for the tail current.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, in the Main settings, set I-V characteristics defined by to Lookup table (2D, temperature independent) or Lookup table (3D, temperature dependent).

### Advanced (Full I-V and Capacitance Characteristics)

The lookup table representation combines all the equivalent circuit components into one lookup table, and therefore this setting is empty. If you use the equivalent circuit representation, this setting has the following parameters.

Emission coefficient or ideality factor of the bipolar transistor.

Forward Early voltage for the PNP transistor used in the IGBT model. For more information, see the PNP Bipolar Transistor block reference page.

Resistance at the collector.

Resistance at the emitter.

Resistance of the internal gate resistor at the measurement temperature. This is not the value of the external circuit series gate resistance, which you should model externally to the IGBT.

Ideal maximum forward current gain for the PNP transistor used in the IGBT model. See the PNP Bipolar Transistor block reference page for more information.

### Temperature Dependence (Full I-V and Capacitance Characteristics)

For the 2D lookup table representation, the electrical equations do not depend on temperature and therefore this setting is empty. For the 3D lookup table representation with exposed thermal port, this setting is also empty because the 3D matrix on the Main setting captures the temperature dependence. If the block thermal port is not exposed for the 3D lookup table representation, then this setting contains only the Device simulation temperature parameter. If you use the equivalent circuit representation, this setting has the following parameters.

Select one of the following methods for temperature dependence parameterization:

• None — Simulate at parameter measurement temperature — Temperature dependence is not modeled, and none of the other parameters on this setting are visible. This is the default method.

• Specify Ices and Vce(sat) at second measurement temperature — Model temperature-dependent effects by providing values for the zero gate voltage collector current, Ices, and collector-emitter voltage, Vce(sat), at the second measurement temperature.

• Specify Vce(sat) at second measurement temperature plus the energy gap, EG — Use this option when the datasheet does not provide information on the zero gate voltage collector current, Ices, at a higher measurement temperature.

Energy gap value.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, in the Temperature Dependence setting, set Parameterization to Specify Vce(sat) at second measurement temperature plus the energy gap, EG.

Zero gate collector current value at the second measurement temperature.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, in the Temperature Dependence setting, set Parameterization to Specify Ices and Vce(sat) at second measurement temperature.

Collector-emitter saturation voltage value at the second measurement temperature, and when the collector current and gate-emitter voltage are as defined by the corresponding parameters on the Main setting.

Second temperature Tm2 at which Zero gate voltage collector current, Ices, at second measurement temperature and Collector-emitter saturation voltage, Vce(sat), at second measurement temperature are measured.

Saturation current exponent value for your device type. If you have graphical data for the value of Ices as a function of temperature, you can use it to fine-tune the value of XTI.

Mobility temperature coefficient value. You can use the default value for most devices. If you have graphical data for Vce(sat) at different temperatures, you can use it to fine-tune the value of BEX.

Represents the fractional rate of change (α) of internal gate resistance (RG) with temperature. Thus the gate resistance is R = Rmeas(1 + α (Ts – Tm1 )), where Rmeas is the Internal gate resistance, RG parameter value.

Temperature Ts at which the device is simulated.

### Main (Simplified I-V Characteristics and Event-Based Timing)

This configuration of the Main setting corresponds to the simplified, event-based block modeling option. If you are using the detailed modeling option of the block, see Main (Full I-V and Capacitance Characteristics).

Collector currents for which the on-state collector-emitter voltages are defined. The first element must be zero.

Temperature values at which the collector-emitter and turn-on/turn-off losses are quoted.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, expose the thermal port by setting Modeling option to Simplified I-V characteristics and event-based timing | Show thermal port.

Collector-emitter voltages corresponding to the vector of collector currents. The first element must be zero.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set Modeling option to Simplified I-V characteristics and event-based timing | No thermal port.

Collector-emitter voltages when in the on state, defined as a function of both temperature and current.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, expose the thermal port by setting Modeling option to Simplified I-V characteristics and event-based timing | Show thermal port.

When the device turns on, it has a constant-value Miller resistance in series with the demanded voltage ramp. This resistance represents the partial conductance path through the device during turn on, and can be used to match the voltage spike observed when reconnecting a current-carrying inductor and corresponding freewheeling diode. A typical value is 10 to 50 times the effective on-state resistance.

Conductance when the device is in the off state.

Gate-emitter voltage must be greater than this value for the device to turn on.

### Switching Losses (Simplified I-V Characteristics and Event-Based Timing)

Temperatures at which switching losses are tabulated.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, expose the thermal port by setting Modeling option to Simplified I-V characteristics and event-based timing | Show thermal port.

Collector currents at which switching losses are tabulated.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, expose the thermal port by setting Modeling option to Simplified I-V characteristics and event-based timing | Show thermal port.

Energy loss when turning the device on, defined as a function of temperature and final on-state current.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, expose the thermal port by setting Modeling option to Simplified I-V characteristics and event-based timing | Show thermal port.

Energy loss when turning the device off, defined as a function of temperature and final on-state current.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, expose the thermal port by setting Modeling option to Simplified I-V characteristics and event-based timing | Show thermal port.

### Dynamics (Simplified I-V Characteristics and Event-Based Timing)

Time before which the device starts to ramp on.

Time taken for the current to ramp up when driving a resistive load.

Time before which the device starts to ramp off.

Time taken for the current to ramp down when driving a resistive load.

Off-state collector-emitter voltage used when specifying the rise and fall times. The default value is 300 V.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set Modeling option to Simplified I-V characteristics and event-based timing | No thermal port.

Off-state collector-emitter voltage used when specifying the rise times, fall times, and the losses data.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, expose the thermal port by setting Modeling option to Simplified I-V characteristics and event-based timing | Show thermal port.

## Version History

Introduced in R2008a