# How does 'unique' work under the hood (in general terms)

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Erik Johannes Loo on 14 Feb 2022
Answered: Walter Roberson on 14 Feb 2022
I am just curious as to how this function works by default, under the hood.
I know that a couple of ways of implementing unique manually is to copy over the elements from one array into a hash table or a binary search tree.
Given that the default implementation of 'unique' also sorts the elements, I would guess that it maybe copies over the elements into a binary search tree.
As a result, if I need to both sort and remove duplicate elements/rows from an array I would only need to call 'unique' instead of sort(unique(...)) or sortrows(unique(...), ...)?
Rik on 14 Feb 2022
Those who know can't tell, those who can tell don't know. You could try to dig in the source code, but you can't do anything with that knowledge.
I would be very hesitant to apply a big O notation on my function. I rolled my own hashing algorithm. You should be deeply, DEEPLY, mistrustful of me. It works for what I do with it: confirm my test functions return the same output. I only use this unique_array function if I'm there to catch any strange errors.
I suspect the unique function will run different code when it is called with the 'stable' flag. Mathworks employs smart people, who're probably aware of this trade-off.

Bruno Luong on 14 Feb 2022
Edited: Bruno Luong on 14 Feb 2022
If I have to implement unique, I would implemented by sorting the find the difference similar to this
a=randi(10,1,100);
% u is unique of a
s=sort(a);
j=[true,diff(s)~=0];
u=s(j)
Working with contiguous array if much more efficient than binary search and hash function. But TMW doesn't not document how unique works.
Erik Johannes Loo on 14 Feb 2022
Thanks for your reply. The fact that TMW does not disclose how 'unique' works explains why I wasn't able to find anything before.
In my mind I can see that the runtime complexity would be the same for your approach and the binary search approach O(n log n) - dominated by either the sort function or the BST insert function, but I have in fact noticed that working with arrays is much faster and can be done allocating minimal additional memory (the boolean j array).

Walter Roberson on 14 Feb 2022
unique() does a sort() and then checks where adjacent elements are different.
You can read the code; it is a .m file.

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