Variable volume hydraulic capacity in cylinders
Starting in Release R2014a, you can specify fluid compressibility directly in the hydro-mechanical converter blocks. It is recommended that, instead of using the Hydraulic Piston Chamber block connected to a converter, you use the Compressibility parameter in the converter block dialog box, because the new method provides more accurate results and also because the Hydraulic Piston Chamber block may be removed in a future release. For more information, see the R2014a Release Notes.
The Hydraulic Piston Chamber block models fluid compressibility in a chamber created by a piston of a cylinder. The fluid is considered to be a mixture of liquid and a small amount of entrained, nondissolved gas. Use this block together with the Translational Hydro-Mechanical Converter block. The Hydraulic Piston Chamber block takes into account only the flow rate caused by fluid compressibility. The fluid volume consumed to create piston velocity is accounted for in the Translational Hydro-Mechanical Converter block.
|q||Flow rate due to fluid compressibility|
|A||Effective piston area|
|x0||Piston initial position|
|x||Piston displacement from initial position|
|or||Chamber orientation with respect to the globally assigned positive direction. If displacement in positive direction increases the volume of the chamber, or equals 1. If displacement in positive direction decreases the volume of the chamber, or equals –1.|
|E||Fluid bulk modulus|
|El||Pure liquid bulk modulus|
|p||Gauge pressure of fluid in the chamber|
|α||Relative gas content at atmospheric pressure, α = VG/VL|
|VG||Gas volume at atmospheric pressure|
|VL||Volume of liquid|
|n||Gas-specific heat ratio|
The main objective of representing fluid as a mixture of liquid and gas is to introduce an approximate model of cavitation, which takes place in a chamber if pressure drops below fluid vapor saturation level. As it is seen in the graph below, the bulk modulus of a mixture decreases as the gauge pressure approaches zero, thus considerably slowing down further pressure change. At gauge pressures far above zero, a small amount of undissolved gas has practically no effect on the system behavior.
Cavitation is an inherently thermodynamic process, requiring consideration of multiple-phase fluids, heat transfers, etc., and as such cannot be accurately simulated with Simscape™ software. But the simplified version implemented in the block is good enough to signal if pressure falls below dangerous level, and to prevent computation failure that normally occurs at negative pressures.
If pressure falls below absolute vacuum (–101325 Pa), the simulation stops and an error message is displayed.
Port A is a hydraulic conserving port associated with the chamber inlet. Port P is a physical signal port that controls piston displacement.
The block positive direction is from port A to the reference point. This means that the flow rate is positive if it flows into the chamber.
To set the priority and initial target values for the block variables prior to simulation, use the Variables tab in the block dialog box (or the Variables section in the block Property Inspector). For more information, see Set Priority and Initial Target for Block Variables.
Fluid density remains constant.
Chamber volume cannot be less than the dead volume.
Fluid fills the entire chamber volume.
Effective piston area. The default value is
Initial offset of the piston from the cylinder cap. The default value is 0.
Specifies chamber orientation with respect to the globally assigned
positive direction. The chamber can be installed in two different
ways, depending upon whether the piston motion in the positive direction
increases or decreases the volume of the chamber. If piston motion
in the positive direction decreases the chamber volume, set the parameter
Positive displacement decreases volume.
The default value is
Positive displacement increases
Volume of fluid in the chamber at zero piston position. The
default value is
Gas-specific heat ratio. The default value is
Parameters determined by the type of working fluid:
Fluid kinematic viscosity
The block has the following ports:
Hydraulic conserving port associated with the chamber inlet.
Physical signal port that controls piston displacement.
 Manring, N.D., Hydraulic Control Systems, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2005
 Meritt, H.E., Hydraulic Control Systems, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1967