I/Q Imbalance

Create complex baseband model of signal impairments caused by imbalances between in-phase and quadrature receiver components


RF Impairments


The I/Q Imbalance block creates a complex baseband model of the signal impairments caused by imbalances between in-phase and quadrature receiver components. Typically, these are caused by differences in the physical channels for the two components of the signal.

The I/Q Imbalance block applies amplitude and phase imbalances to the in-phase and quadrature components of the input signal, and then combines the results into a complex signal. The block

  1. Separates the signal into its in-phase and quadrature components.

  2. Applies amplitude and phase imbalances, specified by the I/Q amplitude imbalance (dB) and I/Q phase imbalance (deg) parameters, respectively, to both components.

  3. Combines the in-phase and quadrature components into a complex signal.

  4. Applies an in-phase dc offset, specified by the I dc offset parameter, and a quadrature offset, specified by the Q dc offset parameter, to the signal.

The block performs these operations in the subsystem shown in the following diagram, which you can view by right-clicking the block and selecting Mask > Look under mask:


Ia = I/Q amplitude imbalance

Ip = I/Q phase imbalance

IDC = in-phase DC offset

QDC = quadrature DC offset

Also let x = xr + j *xi be the complex input to the block, with xr and xi being the real and imaginary parts, respectively, of x. Let y be the complex output of the block.

Then, for an I/Q amplitude imbalance, Ia

y AmplitudeImbalance = [10(0.5*Ia20)*xr]+j[10(0.5*Ia20)*xi]
y rAmplitudeImbalance + j*yiAmplitudeImbalance

For an I/Q phase imbalance Ip

yPhaseImbalance = [exp(0.5*j*π*Ip180)*yrAmplitudeImbalance]+{exp[j(π2+0.5*π*Ip180)]*yiAmplitudeImbalance}
yrPhaseImbalance+ j * yiPhaseImbalance

For DC offsets IDC and QDC

y = (yr PhaseImbalance + IDC) + j * (yiPhaseImbalance + QDC )

The value of the I/Q amplitude imbalance (dB) parameter is divided between the in-phase and quadrature components such that the block applies a gain of +X/2 dB to the in-phase component and a gain of -X/2 dB to the quadrature component where X can be positive or negative.

The effects of changing the block's parameters are illustrated by the following scatter plots of a signal modulated by 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) with an average power of 0.01 watts. The usual 16-ary QAM constellation without distortion is shown in the first scatter plot:

The following figure shows a scatter plot of an output signal, modulated by 16-ary QAM, from the I/Q block with I/Q amplitude imbalance (dB) set to 8 and all other parameters set to 0:

Observe that the scatter plot is stretched horizontally and compressed vertically compared to the undistorted constellation.

If you set IQ phase imbalance (deg) to 30 and all other parameters to 0, the scatter plot is skewed clockwise by 30 degrees, as shown below:

Setting the I dc offset to 0.02 and the Q dc offset to 0.04 shifts the constellation 0.02 to the right and 0.04 up, as shown below:

See Illustrate RF Impairments That Distort a Signal for a description of the model that generates this plot.


I/Q amplitude imbalance (dB)

Scalar specifying the I/Q amplitude imbalance in decibels.

I/Q phase imbalance (deg)

Scalar specifying the I/Q phase imbalance in degrees.

I dc offset

Scalar specifying the in-phase dc offset.

Q dc offset

Scalar specifying the amplitude dc offset.

Introduced before R2006a