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Antennas, Microphones, and Sonar Transducers

Antennas with isotropic, cosine, sinc, cardioid, gaussian, and custom response patterns; dipole antennas; microphones with omnidirectional and custom response patterns; sonar transducers; polarization

You can simulate a phased array using the antenna, microphone, and sonar transducer System objects contained in this toolbox. You can choose from several common antenna and microphone element types but you can also define custom antenna or microphone elements. Antennas include isotropic, cosine, sinc, cardioid, and gaussian for scalar fields and dipole short dipole, crossed-dipole, and NR-element antennas to simulate polarized electromagnetic fields. The toolbox also includes omnidirectional and custom microphones which are useful in audio applications. The toolbox supports sonar applications with isotropic projector and hydrophone System objects. Plotting tools let you display radiation patterns for power and directivity.

Phased array systems are also compatible with antennas from Antenna Toolbox™. Use of this toolbox requires an additional license. For an example of how to use Antenna Toolbox antennas in place of Phased Array System Toolbox™ antennas, see Using Antenna Toolbox with Phased Array Systems.

The toolbox also provides models for transmitting and receiving amplifiers.


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phased.CardioidAntennaElementCardioid antenna element
phased.CosineAntennaElementCosine antenna element
phased.CrossedDipoleAntennaElementCrossed-dipole antenna element
phased.CustomAntennaElementCustom antenna element
phased.GaussianAntennaElementGaussian antenna element
phased.IsotropicAntennaElementIsotropic antenna element
phased.NRAntennaElement5G antenna element described in 3GPP TR 38.901 specification
phased.ShortDipoleAntennaElementShort-dipole antenna element
phased.SincAntennaElementSinc antenna element
phased.CustomMicrophoneElementCustom microphone
phased.OmnidirectionalMicrophoneElementOmnidirectional microphone
phased.IsotropicHydrophoneIsotropic hydrophone
phased.IsotropicProjectorIsotropic projector


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aperture2gainConvert effective aperture to gain
gain2apertureConvert gain to effective aperture
ap2beamwidthCompute half-power beamwidth from aperture length
beamwidth2apComputes aperture length of unweighted antenna from beamwidth
beamwidth2gainCompute antenna gain from azimuth and elevation beamwidths
uv2azelConvert u/v coordinates to azimuth/elevation angles
azel2uvConvert azimuth/elevation angles to u/v coordinates
phitheta2azelConvert angles from phi/theta form to azimuth/elevation form
azel2phithetaConvert angles from azimuth-elevation form to phi-theta form
uv2phithetaConvert u/v coordinates to phi/theta angles
phitheta2uvConvert phi/theta angles to u/v coordinates
uv2azelpatConvert radiation pattern from u/v form to azimuth/elevation form
azel2uvpatConvert radiation pattern from azimuth/elevation form to u/v form
azelcut2patCreate 3-D response pattern from azimuth and elevation cuts
phitheta2azelpatConvert radiation pattern from phi-theta coordinates to azimuth-elevation coordinates
azel2phithetapatConvert radiation pattern from azimuth-elevation coordinates to phi-theta coordinates
uv2phithetapatConvert radiation pattern from u/v form to phi/theta form
phitheta2uvpatConvert radiation pattern from phi/theta form to u/v form
rotpatRotate radiation pattern
polellipParameters of ellipse traced out by tip of a polarized field vector
polratioRatio of vertical to horizontal linear polarization components of a field
pol2circpolConvert linear component representation of field to circular component representation
circpol2polConvert circular component representation of field to linear component representation
stokesStokes parameters of polarized field
pollossPolarization loss
polsignatureCopolarization and cross-polarization signatures


polarpatternInteractive plot of radiation patterns in polar format



Cosine Antenna Element

Cosine antennas have response patterns consisting of cosine functions raised to user-specifiable power.

Custom Antenna Element

You can specify the response pattern of a custom antenna element as a function of azimuth and elevation.

Isotropic Antenna Element

Isotropic antennas have response patterns that are uniform in all directions.

Short-dipole Antenna Element

Short-dipole antenna elements radiate linearly-polarized electromagnetic fields.

Crossed-dipole Antenna Element

Crossed-dipole antenna elements radiate circularly-polarized electromagnetic fields.

Gaussian Antenna as Approximation for Spiral Antenna

Approximate a spiral antenna using a Gaussian antenna element.

Sinc Antenna as Approximation for Array Response Pattern

Approximate the response of an array using a sinc antenna element.

Using Antenna Toolbox with Phased Array Systems

You can use Antenna Toolbox antennas in your Phased Array System Toolbox simulation.


Custom Microphone Element

You can specify the response pattern of a custom microphone element as a function of azimuth and elevation.

Omnidirectional Microphone

Omnidirectional microphone have response patterns uniform in all directions.

Radiation Patterns

Element and Array Radiation and Response Patterns

Radiation patterns describe fields radiated by antennas and transducers and can be used to analyze directivity and gain.

Polarized Fields

Polarized electromagnetic fields.

Standards and Conventions

This section introduces the concept of baseband signals and defines the local and global coordinate systems used in the toolbox.

Units of Measure and Physical Constants

Phased Array System Toolbox uses the International System of Units (SI).