# How to understand and apply arrayfun - getting intuition beyond the documentation.

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Owen Cheevers on 6 Jul 2022
Commented: Jan on 7 Jul 2022
I've been trying to write a piece of code based on someone else's work for the same project, and I keep struggling with understanding how/ why their use of arrayfun is able to achieve the desired task.
I looked into the documentation and ran some of my own tests, but was still left with some confusion.
Basically, the data set being worked with is a 2 column matrix (arbitrary number of rows) that corresponds to a set of ordered pair data points. The goal is to find the mean of all the "y" (2nd column) measurements that correspond to the same "x" (1st column) value. So if theres 4 data points with an x value of 6, we'd want the mean of all their respective y values.
What my collaborator did was essentially as follows (I just used a random, simple data set here). Specifically, I'm confused about the L == x and how the unique(L) is being correlated to x. I understand the unique function overall I think, just not how it realtes to x here:
X = [1, 12; 1, 13; 1, 12; 2, 4; 2, 4; 2, 4; 3, 9; 3, 9; 3, 9];
L = X(:,1);
M = arrayfun(@(x) mean(X(L == x, 2)), unique(L));

Steven Lord on 6 Jul 2022
X = [1, 12; 1, 13; 1, 12; 2, 4; 2, 4; 2, 4; 3, 9; 3, 9; 3, 9];
L = X(:,1);
U = unique(L); % Define this once, use it in multiple places
M = arrayfun(@(x) mean(X(L == x, 2)), U)
M = 3×1
12.3333 4.0000 9.0000
Another way to write this arrayfun call using a for loop would be:
M2 = zeros(numel(U), 1); % Preallocate the result
for k = 1:numel(U)
% Choose the rows where the first column of X is equal to a specific
% value from U, then extract the data in the second column of X for
% those rows
column2OfSelectedRows = X(L == U(k), 2);
% Take the mean of that data and store it in the appropriate row of M2
M2(k, 1) = mean(column2OfSelectedRows);
end
We can check that M and M2 are equal.
isequal(M, M2)
ans = logical
1
But there's another way to do this. What you want to do is use L as a grouping variable and summarize the rows in X that have the same value for that grouping variable. The groupsummary function will let you do this. Note that we're not using U or the unique function here; groupsummary will make one group for each unique value in the grouping variable.
groupingVariable = L;
dataVariable = X(:, 2);
% Apply the mean function to each subset of values in dataVariable whose
% corresponding elements in groupingVariable have the same value
M3 = groupsummary(dataVariable, groupingVariable, @mean)
M3 = 3×1
12.3333 4.0000 9.0000
Check:
isequal(M, M3)
ans = logical
1
Jan on 7 Jul 2022
@Owen Cheevers: Exactly. arrayfun applies the function to each element of the array provided as 2nd input argument, in this case unique(L).

Jan on 6 Jul 2022
Edited: Jan on 6 Jul 2022
You can replace arrayfun by a loop:
X = [1, 12; 1, 13; 1, 12; 2, 4; 2, 4; 2, 4; 3, 9; 3, 9; 3, 9];
L = X(:,1);
M = arrayfun(@(x) mean(X(L == x, 2)), unique(L));
% As a loop:
uL = unique(L); % 2nd input of arrayfun
M = zeros(1, numel(uL)); % pre-allocate the output
for k = 1:numel(uL) % Loop over elements
M(k) = mean(X(L == uL(k), 2)); % Function to be applied
end
So arrayfun applies the function to each element of the 2nd argument. The result of the k.th argument is replied as k.th output.
A speed comparison:
X = randi([1, 255], 1e5, 2); % Test data
% Arrayfun:
tic
for rep = 1:20 % Loops just to improve the accuracy of the timings
L = X(:,1);
M = arrayfun(@(x) mean(X(L == x, 2)), unique(L));
end
toc
Elapsed time is 1.062837 seconds.
% Loop over unique values:
tic
for rep = 1:20
uL = unique(L);
M2 = zeros(numel(uL), 1);
for k = 1:numel(uL)
M2(k) = mean(X(L == uL(k), 2));
end
end
toc
Elapsed time is 0.941583 seconds.
arrayfun is usually slower than a simple loop. It is questionable if the more compact code is woth to use it here.
But there are faster methods:
% Loop over original values:
tic
for rep = 1:20
m = max(L);
s = zeros(m, 1); % Sum elements
n = zeros(m, 1); % Sum number of occurences
for k = 1:numel(L)
q = L(k);
s(q) = s(q) + X(k, 2);
n(q) = n(q) + 1;
end
M3 = s ./ n;
end
toc % 28 times faster than the ARRAYFUN method:
Elapsed time is 0.038764 seconds.
This is nicely fast, but ugly - C-style like somebody has rolled an angry armadillo over the keyboard.
% Accumarray
tic
for rep = 1:20
M4 = accumarray(X(:, 1), X(:, 2), [], @mean);
end
toc
Elapsed time is 0.157346 seconds.
Accumarray is slower than the loop here and as compact as arrayfun, but without its slowness.
tic % Another option:
for rep = 1:20
M5 = splitapply(@mean, X(:, 2), X(:, 1)); % Different order than in ACCUMARRAY
end
toc
Elapsed time is 0.286565 seconds.
Internally splitapply calls arrayfun , so it is expected to be slower.
The results are equal:
isequal(M, M2, M3, M4, M5)
ans = logical
1
By the way, replace @mean by: @(x) sum(x)/numel(x) to avoid the overhead of the mean() function. This can save 10% of the runtime.
Owen Cheevers on 6 Jul 2022
Thank you for the in-depth breakdown of all the alternatives and their relative speeds. That is immensely helpful and I'll definitely have to look into some of those for my code. Your synopsis at the end specifically where you go through the benefits of each and the drawbacks of arrayfun was quite useful. I'd been pushing to use arrayfun as I had assumed it was the faster alternative based on my collaborators work, but I never actually checked that on my own.

R2022a

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