Should anyone have this issue in the future, for me it was caused by using the wrong extraction method on the .zip file. I have 7zip installed on my 64bit machine and using the command:
7z e matlab_R2017a_glnxa64.zip
caused the file to extract but apparently not in the right way. The MATLAB directions at https://www.mathworks.com/help/install/ug/install-mathworks-software.html specifically call for you to use:
which then allows the install to continue properly.