Satellite communications is emerging as an important enabling technology for ubiquitous connectivity. There are currently more than 2,000 communication satellites in orbit around the Earth serving applications such as TV and radio broadcasting, navigation, telemetry, imaging, and remote sensing. Communication satellites usually fall under one of three orbital classifications: geostationary (GEO), middle Earth orbit (MEO), and low Earth orbit (LEO).
Use of LEO satellite constellations for wireless connectivity is an emerging trend. With an orbital altitude ranging from 160 to 1000 km above the Earth’s surface, these systems are slated to provide high-speed internet connectivity no matter where you are on Earth.
Several challenges are inherent to the designs of high-speed satellite communication links.