Dr. Kovscek is interested in the chemistry and physics of unconventional geological formations (e.g., shale) because of their importance in the transition of energy processes to net-zero carbon emissions. Aside from being a significant energy resource, unconventional formations serve as geological seals of conventional subsurface formations that may be used to sequester carbon dioxide, store intermittent renewable energy (e.g., green hydrogen), and isolate nuclear waste. Unconventional formations are ubiquitous throughout the subsurface, but our engineering science knowledge is poor due to their nanoporous structure and extreme heterogeneity. His research group examines the fabric of porous media as well as the physics of flow at length scales that vary from the pore to the laboratory to the reservoir. The organizing themes are flow imaging to delineate the mechanisms of transport in porous media (water and gas) and the synthesis of models from experimental, theoretical, and field data.